Here are Fit Bottomed Eats, we’re lucky in that we get the scoop on new healthy foods before they hit the shelves. And, lately, we’ve seen some big trends that are starting to pop. Here are the five hottest food trends we’ve got our eyeballs on — and think you should, too! The Hottest Food Trends of 2019 1. All the functional drinks. You’ve probably already noticed that the drink aisle at your natural grocery store is like a million miles long, but prepare for it to get even longer in the New Year. From more kombuchas and fermented drinks…

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Are you looking to get more more pre- and probiotics in your life? Do you even know the difference? Well, we have you covered in this enlightening interview with nutritionist extraordinaire Ellie Krieger. Ellie is also a spokesperson for Renew Life and shares with us all of the essentials to get your whole self (not just your gut!) healthier. (She likes to think of probiotics as amazing house guests for your body!) Ellie also dishes on what items you will always find in her fridge and pantry, her favorite go-to meals, the sheer loveliness of chewing, and the one food…

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For today’s edition of Dear Mark, I’m answering a bunch of questions from comment sections. First, did I get AMPK and mTOR mixed up in a recent post? Yes. Second, I give a warning for those who wish to add ginger to their broth. Third, is it a problem that we can’t accurately measure autophagy? Fourth, how does coffee with coconut oil affect a fast? Fifth, is there a way to make mayonnaise with extra B12 and metformin? Actually, kinda. Sixth, should you feel awkward about proposing hypotheses or presenting scientific evidence to your doctor? No.

Let’s go:

Great article, but a couple of amends are required with regards to mTOR. Firstly, you mention in the last paragraph that curcumin activates autophagy by activating mTOR. Reading the actual article abstract though, it states the opposite, ie the effect of curcumin “downregulating AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in human melanoma cells”.

Great catch. I’m not sure how I flipped that around. AMPK triggers autophagy, mTOR inhibits it.

What you say about curcumin goes for all the other broth ingredients I mentioned. Ginger, green tea, and curcumin all contain phytonutrients which trigger AMPK, which should induce autophagy, or at least get out of its way. What remains to be seen is whether the amino acids in broth are sufficient to inhibit fasting-and-phytonutrient-induced autophagy. I lean toward “yes,” but is it an on-off switch, or is autophagy a spectrum? Does inhibition imply complete nullification? I doubt it.

Regarding autophagy and health and longevity, it’s important to note the manner in which glycine, the primary amino acid found in broth and gelatin, opposes the effects of methionine, the primary amino acid found in muscle meat and a great stimulator of mTOR.

One notable study found that while restricting dietary methionine increased the lifespan of lab rodents, if you added dietary glycine, you could keep methionine in the diet and maintain the longevity benefits. That doesn’t necessarily speak to the effect of broth on autophagy during a fast, but it’s a good reminder that broth is a general good guy in the fight for healthy longevity.

Funny you mentioned ginger and turmeric as I add both, along with a whole lemon and/or lime, to my list of ingredients when cooking my broth. Here’s another great tip: I juice turmeric root, ginger & lemon together in my Omega juicer and freeze in ice cube trays. I add a cube to curries and other dishes.

That’s a great idea. One cautionary note about the raw ginger: it will destroy your gelatin.

Raw ginger has a powerful protease, an enzyme that breaks down protein. If you grate a bunch of ginger into a batch of finished broth, or juice a few inches and dump it in, there’s a good chance you’ll lose the gel. The amino acids will remain, but you’ll miss out on the texture, the mouthfeel, the culinary benefits of a good strong gelatinous bone broth.

Heating the ginger with the broth as it cooks, or even just reducing the amount of raw ginger you add, should reduce the protease activity.

“Bone broth with turmeric, green tea, and ginger might actually combine to form a decent autophagy-preserving drink during a fast. Only one way to find out!” You say this as if there is a way for us to try this and see. Since we cannot measure autophagy, this statement makes no sense.

Touché.

Although it will all shake out in the end, or towards it. If things seem to be “going good” for you as you get older, if your doctor is always pleasantly surprised at your test results, if you maintain your vim and vigor as your peers degenerate, maybe it worked. Maybe it’ll add a few months or years to your life, and you’ll never quite know because you don’t have an alternate life in which you didn’t add the turmeric, green tea, and ginger to your broth for comparison.

At any rate, the mix tastes really, really good. That’s reason enough to drink the stuff.

What about drinking a cup of black coffee with one tablespoon of coconut oil blended in? What effect does that have on fasting?

You’ll burn less body fat (because you’re eating 14 grams of it).

Autophagy will be maintained (because fat has little to no effect on autophagy).

You may have better adherence. The fast might “feel” easier, although you might not be “fasting as hard.”

I often have cream in my coffee during a “fast,” and I see no ill effects. Although as I alluded to in the previous answer, these things are hard to definitively measure. Much of it is a mix of speculation, hope, intuition, and faith that our health practices are helping us and improving our outcomes.

Read my post on coffee during a fast for more information.

Can you make a Mayo with metformin and increased B12? Thanks

You know what? Let’s try to make this happen.

Start with your favorite mayo recipe. Then, swap out the chicken egg yolks for two duck egg yolks. Each duck egg contains almost 4 micrograms of B12—more than the daily requirement. For comparison’s sake, the average chicken egg has about 0.5 micrograms.

At the end, add in a few drops of barberry extract—barberry is a good natural source of berberine, an alkaloid whose effects are similar to metformin’s. I don’t know if the extract will affect the emulsion of the mayo, but it shouldn’t be too much of a hindrance. Barberry is said to be bitter, so perhaps add a few pinches of a natural sweetener like stevia or monk fruit to counteract it.

I recently read a PubMed article that possibly ties Metformin use in diabetic patients with MTHFR mutation (in particular C677T) causing Vitamin B12 deficiency leading to Hyperhomocysteinemia which then may increase risk of vascular thrombosis. I have also read many articles/opinions that convey there is nothing to worry about with MTHFR mutations. My Mom is a Metformin treated (several years) diabetic who has the C677T mutation and has had one blood clot in her leg and, now while on blood thinners, has been experiencing severe swelling in lower extremities. I’m trying to figure out if we should be looking into this combination of Metformin and MTHFR mutation as the cause behind this or if the docs will think I’m just another wack-a-doo who diagnoses things via the internet, especially since I’ve already self-diagnosed Hereditary Hemochromatosis in myself earlier this year! Genes are fascinating! ?

Wack a doos make the world go round. Some of the greatest thinkers, creators, and doers throughout human history were considered by many to be insane.

And hey, this is your mother. There’s no shame in helping your kin.

A wack a doo would ask her doc about the potential for crystals to heal her tumor. A wack a doo would bring a printout of a random Reddit post to the appointment and use it as proof of her hypothesis. A wack a doo would ask the staff dietitian for a Breatharianism protocol. Bringing a legitimate medical article discussing a specific mutation that has been shown to induce B12 deficiencies in people taking the very same medication your mother is taking along with genetic results showing she has the mutation is far from crazy. Do it.

Besides, you’re totally right. A vitamin B12 deficiency (and the resultant elevated homocysteine levels) is a known risk factor for blood clots.

That’s it for today, folks. Take care and be sure to leave your comments and questions down below. Thanks for reading!

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References:

Joel BrindVirginia MalloyInes AugieNicholas CaliendoJoseph H VogelmanJay A. Zimmerman, and Norman Orentreich Dietary glycine supplementation mimics lifespan extension by dietary methionine restriction in Fisher 344 ratsThe FASEB Journal 2011 25:1_supplement528.2-528.2 

The post Dear Mark: Broth, Fasting, Coffee, and Metformin (and More) appeared first on Mark’s Daily Apple.

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inline Fiber.jpegThe tricky thing about fiber is that it’s not a monolith. There are dozens of varieties. Some of them perform similar functions in the body, but others have extremely unique effects. Some rend your colonic lining to stimulate lubrication. Some turn into gelatinous slurries. But we can’t talk about fiber without understanding that the word describes a variety of compounds. As such, anyone making declarative statements about “fiber” without differentiating between the different types and their effects isn’t being accurate (except for me in that exact sentence).

This leads to a lot of confusion. People make blanket statements that might be true for some types of fibers and incorrect for others. 

Today’s post will attempt to illuminate the bulk of the matter. I’ll go through some of the most common misconceptions and myths about fiber from all corners of the dietary world. Whether you’re keto, low-carb, vegan, carnivore, or breatharian, you’ll find something to love and hate in today’s post.

1) “Fiber makes you full.”

This is theoretically sound. Mechanoreceptors in the gut respond to physical fullness by triggering satiety hormones. Big loads of insoluble fiber increase intestinal bulk, while some soluble fibers can gel up and increase the size of the stuff moving through your gut. Both result in added pressure on gut mechanoreceptors.

How does it work in practice?

A review found that while soluble fiber reduced appetite more than insoluble fibers, the overall effect on body weight was quite small, unimpressive, and inconsistent. More recently, a soluble fiber supplement failed to have any effect on satiety hormones, appetite, and subsequent food intake for the first 150 minutes after eating in healthy adults. The plucky researchers aren’t giving in, however, promising “further research… to quantify how soluble fiber influences appetite several hours after consumption.”

Resistant starch, an indigestible type of starch that colonic bacteria ferment, on the other hand does appear to increase satiety in humans, reducing food intake by 15%.

2) “Every diet needs the same amount of fiber.”

As it turns out, fiber becomes more critical the more carbohydrates you eat.

Soluble fiber slows down digestion, reducing the rate at which energy is absorbed. This can be helpful for people with glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes by slowing the release of glucose into the blood. 

The byproducts of fiber fermentation in the colon by gut bacteria often have beneficial effects on carbohydrate metabolism. Eating resistant starch, for example, lowers the postprandial blood glucose spike. This reduction may also extend to subsequent meals, indicating it’s honing your ability to handle glucose. Everyone can benefit from better glucose management, but it’s far more critical for people eating significant amounts of glucose.

3) “All the healthiest people studied eat fiber!”

Observational studies are fun and all, but they’re not a good way to prove the healthfulness of fiber. Looking at fiber intake is just about the best way to capture the “healthy user”—that person who does everything right, like walk daily, exercise regularly, abstain from tobacco, avoid binge drinking, and eat whole foods rather than refined ones. It doesn’t say anything definitive about the health effects of the specific dietary variable they’re observing.

That said, the fact that most healthy populations eat whole foods containing fiber indicates that fiber probably isn’t actively harmful.

4) “Fiber is just roughage for big impressive poops. No functional use.”

That’s mostly true of insoluble fiber, which is pure waste material that shreds your intestinal lining and increases stool volume.

There’s considerable evidence that people with type 2 diabetes can really benefit from prebiotic fiber supplementation:

  • Chicory-derived inulin, a potent prebiotic fiber, reduces liver enzymes and HbA1c, improves blood pressure and fasting glucose, and increases calcium homeostasis.
  • Inulin improves immune markers and glycemic control.
  • Resistant starch lowers insulin resistance and inflammation.

A review of studies found that while the prebiotic inulin reduces LDL-C (an imperfect biomarker of dubious utility) in all populations, only in type 2 diabetics does inulin improve HDL and blood glucose control. 

Prebiotic fiber may also help certain patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The usual therapy for NAFLD patients is weight loss. You lose enough body fat elsewhere and the fat you’ve accumulated in the liver starts to disappear, too.

What about lean NAFLD patients without any real weight to lose?

In lean patients with NAFLD, a synbiotic—blend of prebiotic fiber with probiotic bacteria—reduces liver fat and fibrosis by improving inflammatory markers. Pre-emptive consumption of prebiotics may even protect against the development of NAFLD.

Another function of fiber that occurs in everyone is the production of short chain fatty acids by gut bacteria. When gut bacteria ferment prebiotic fiber, they produce short chain fatty acids, many of which have beneficial metabolic effects.

Butyrate is the most important short chain fatty acid. It fuels colon cells and may prevent colon cancer. Its relationship with existing colon cancer cells is more controversial. Read more about that here.

One interesting line of research is studying the interaction between the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate and the short chain fatty acid butyrate. Initial indications suggest that the two may have synergistic effects on cognition, inflammation, and overall health. That alone may be a reason to make sure you get prebiotic fiber on your ketogenic diet, just to hedge your bets.

Now, might a low-carb or ketogenic diet work better for people with type 2 diabetes than adding fiber to their normal diet? Sure. Could such a diet reduce the need for fiber? Yeah, I could see it. The same goes for NAFLD—low carb diets are also excellent in this population. And perhaps people who aren’t eating so many carbs don’t need the short chain fatty acids to improve their metabolic function and insulin sensitivity. But the evidence for fiber in type 2 diabetes and NAFLD stands, and I suspect short chain fatty acid production matters even in low carb or keto dieters.

5) “Fiber cures constipation.”

It depends.

In one 2012 study, patients with idiopathic constipation—constipation without apparent physiological or physical causes—had to remove fiber entirely to get pooping again. Those who kept eating a bit or a lot of it continued to have trouble evacuating. The more fiber they ate, the worse their constipation (and bloating) remained.

A 2012 review found that while fiber may increase stool frequency, it doesn’t improve stool quality, treatment success, or painful defecation. Similarly, glucomannan, a soluble fiber, moderately improves defecation frequency in constipated kids, but has no effect on stool quality or overall treatment success.

However, galactooligosaccharides, a class of prebiotic fiber, do appear to improve idiopathic constipation. And inulin, another prebiotic fiber, improves bowel function and stool consistency in patients with constipation.

6) “Fiber aggravates gut issues.”

Some say fiber cures gut issues like IBS and IBD. Others say fiber aggravates them. Who’s right? Maybe both.

Both IBS-D (irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea) and IBS-C (irritable bowel syndrome with constipation) patients can benefit from soluble fiber (psyllium) while insoluble fiber (bran) is far less effective.

Wheat bran works okay for IBS, if the patients can tolerate it. They tend to tolerate something like hydrolyzed guar gum much better.

For IBD, the evidence is mixed. One survey of Crohn’s patients found that those eating more fiber (23 grams/day) had fewer flareups than those eating less (10 grams/day), while colitis patients reported no difference in symptoms based on fiber intake.

On the other hand, studies indicate that a low-FODMAP diet, which eliminates most sources of fiber, especially fermentable prebiotic fiber, is an effective treatment for IBS and IBD. Low-FODMAP diets have been shown to reduce bloating, abdominal pain, quality of life, and overall symptoms in intestinal disorders.

These contrary results may not even be contradictory. If your gut’s messed up, one solution could be to add back in the fibers you’re missing. Another could be to take all the fiber out and start from scratch.

7) “Fiber reduces nutrient absorption.”

For a long time, the consensus was that fiber tends to bind with minerals in the gut and thus reduce their absorption. These days, researchers understand that many of these fiber-bound minerals become available after fermentation in the colon.

Another wrinkle is that dietary fiber often comes with phytic acid, which binds minerals and prevents their absorption. Take wheat bran. Often deemed “wheat fiber” and lambasted for its tendency to bind minerals, wheat bran isn’t just fiber. It’s also a significant source of mineral-binding phytic acid.

Prebiotics increase absorption of magnesium, heme iron, and calcium. This makes sense. Even if the prebiotics are binding minerals, they release them once they reach the colon for fermentation by gut bacteria.

Fiber may reduce absorption of plant polyphenols, however.

8) “No one needs fiber.”

On the surface, this appears to be a sound conclusion. The human host digestive system cannot digest it. The majority of the fiber we eat gets pooped out as literal waste material. Certain classes of fiber may improve our gut health, but no one is keeling over from a lack of fiber in their diet.

Some have argued that a sterile gut is ideal if you have the right diet, that employing vast hordes of gut bacteria is just an adaptive measure taken to deal with a substandard diet full of roughage. The problem is that most people throughout history and prehistory have eaten that roughage, employed those gut bacteria, utilized the metabolites those bacteria produce. I suspect thinking long and hard before you consider it immaterial to human health.

If that were true, why would breast milk—the only food specifically designed for human consumption—contain loads of indigestible oligosaccharides that feed the growing gut biome? Even if it turns out that feeding the gut biome is only vital during infancy, that’s still a population of humans who truly need fiber.

Here’s where I come down: Fiber is an intrinsic part of many whole plant foods (and even whole animal foods, if it turns out that our gut bacteria can utilize “animal fibers” like other top carnivores). The Primal-friendly plants, the ones our ancestors grew up eating approximations of, like fruits, vegetables, roots, and tubers, are mostly higher in soluble fiber and lower in insoluble fiber. The only way to get huge doses of insoluble fiber these days is with supplementation or by eating grains. I don’t suggest eating grains or supplementing with insoluble fiber. I do suggest eating fruits, vegetables, roots, and tubers (while managing your carbs).

As for the carnivore issue, I’m open to the possibility that a properly-constructed carnivorous diet (which may, remember, include gristly animal fiber) obviates the need for plant fiber, prebiotic or otherwise. I’m not confident enough to try it myself, though.

Do I think everyone should be supplementing with prebiotic fiber? No. I add inulin to my Primal Fuel protein powder, mostly to improve mouth-feel but also to feed beneficial microbes and increase butyrate production. I add prebiotic cassava fiber to my collagen bars, again to improve texture and feed gut bacteria. And I’ll sometimes use raw potato starch for its considerable resistant starch content, often just mixing it into sparkling water and drinking it straight. But for the most part, the fiber I eat is incidental to the foods I consume. Berries, non-starchy vegetables, jicama, garlic, onions, green bananas, nuts—these are all foods rich in fiber, particularly prebiotic fiber, and I eat a fair amount of them while remaining low-carb and often keto.

As you can see, the fiber story isn’t simple. At all. There are many variables to consider. If you’re confused and unsure of how to think about fiber, you’re on the right track.

What do you think, folks? How has fiber helped or harmed you? I’d love to hear from everyone.

Take care and be well.

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